For years, the idea of electric vehicles ruling our highways seemed like a far-fetched dream. However, electric vehicles are now in high demand worldwide, and their popularity is only expected to grow in the coming years. Electric vehicles have seen rapid adoption as a result of Li-ion battery price reductions and improved performance. Despite the fact that electric vehicles are becoming increasingly popular due to their lower emissions and lower long-term costs, many people are unaware of their potential fire hazards.
Global EV sales reached 2.1 million in 2019 with an overall stock of 7.2 million, indicating that the global EV fleet could grow to 116 million by 2030. EVs with Li-ion batteries are the most common; however, this well-established technology has safety issues related to thermal runaway, a phenomenon caused by cell abuse with fire and explosion consequences. A series of exothermic reactions causes the cells to overheat and emit flammable gas, which can spread from the cell level to the entire battery pack, resulting in fire. This effect can be triggered by a variety of root causes, including cell mechanical abuse, thermal abuse, or electrical abuse.